Accounting is the process of creating and managing financial statements which record the day to day transactions of the business. Finance has a broader scope and is responsible for initiating transactions to aid in cash, investment and other working capital management. Accounting and finance are both forms of managing the money of the business, but they are used for two very different purposes.
Independence of Auditors and Related Proxy Disclosures On November 15,the Commission voted to adopt new rules that modernize the requirements for auditor independence primarily in three areas: The new rules also require certain disclosures in annual proxy statements about fees paid for services provided by a company's independent accountant.
The new rules reflect the Commission's consideration of comments received on the rules it proposed on June 30, Securities Act Release No. On January 16,the staff published at www. Significant features of the new rules The rules significantly reduce the number of audit firm employees and their family members whose investments in, or employment with, audit clients would impair an auditor's independence.
They also identify certain non-audit services that, if provided to an audit client, would impair an auditor's independence. The rules do not extend to services provided to non-audit clients. A limited exception is provided to an accounting firm for inadvertent independence violations if the firm has quality controls in place and the violation is corrected promptly.
Companies must disclose in their annual proxy statements certain information about non-audit services provided by their auditors during the last fiscal year.
Four Principles A preliminary note to the new rules articulates four principles by which to measure an auditor's independence.
An accountant is not independent when the accountant: Financial Relationships Compared to the previous rules, the newly adopted rules narrow significantly the circle of people whose investments trigger independence concerns. Under the previous rules, many partners in firms that do not work on the audit of a client, as well as their spouses and families, were restricted from investments in a firm's audit clients.
The new rules limit restrictions to principally those who work on the audit or can influence the audit. Employment Relationships The employment relationship rules greatly narrow the scope of people within audit firms whose families will be affected by the employment restrictions necessary to maintain independence.
The rules also identify the positions, namely those in which a person can influence the audit client's accounting records or financial statements, which impair an auditor's independence if held by a "close family member" of the auditor. Business Relationships Consistent with existing rules, independence will be impaired if the accountant or any covered person has a direct or material indirect business relationship with the audit client, other than providing professional services.
General Standard for Auditor Independence The rule is based on the widely endorsed principle that an auditor must be independent in fact and appearance. The new rule specifies that an auditor's independence is impaired either when the accountant is not independent "in fact" or when, in light of all relevant facts and circumstances a reasonable investor would conclude that the auditor would not be capable of acting without bias.
The "reasonable investor" standard is a common construct in securities laws. Non-Audit Services The rules identify nine non-audit services that are deemed inconsistent with an auditor's independence. The new rules closely track the language found in the existing prohibitions.
Paralleling closely the current prohibition on bookkeeping, an audit firm cannot maintain or prepare the audit client's accounting records or prepare the audit client's financial statements that are either filed with the Commission or form the basis of financial statements filed with the Commission.
Exceptions include providing services in emergency situations, provided the accountant does not undertake any managerial actions or make any managerial decisions. Exceptions also include bookkeeping for foreign divisions or subsidiaries of an audit client, provided certain conditions exist.
Financial Information Systems Design and Implementation. The auditor cannot operate or supervise the operation of the client's IT systems.
However, the auditor can provide IT consulting services if certain criteria are met. These criteria specify that management must acknowledge to the auditor and audit committee management's own responsibility for the client's system of internal controls, identify a person within management to make all management decisions with respect to the project, make all the significant decisions with respect to the IT project, evaluate the adequacy and results of the project, and not rely on the accountant's work as the primary basis for determining the adequacy of its financial reporting system.
The prohibition does not include services an accountant performs in connection with the assessment, design, and implementation of internal accounting controls and risk management controls.
Appraisal or Valuation Services or Fairness Opinions. The new rule bans all valuation and appraisal services. Its restrictions apply only where it is reasonably likely that the results of any valuation or appraisal would be material to the financial statements, or where the accountant would audit the results.
Closely tracking the SECPS prohibition on actuarial services, actuarial-oriented advisory services are limited only when they involve the determination of insurance company policy reserves and related accounts. Certain types of actuarial services can be performed if the audit client uses its own actuaries or third party actuaries to provide management with the primary actuarial capabilities, management accepts responsibility for actuarial methods and assumptions, and the accountant does not render actuarial services to an audit client on a continuous basis.
An audit firm will be allowed to perform up to 40 percent measured in terms of hours of an audit client's internal audit work.
The rule does not restrict internal audit services regarding operational internal audits unrelated to accounting controls, financial systems, or financial statements.answering challenge 3 questions CONTENTS contents Practical exPerience requirements (Per) 4 financial accounting and reporting professional ethics, values and judgement question 1 Describe an occasion on which you haD to Demonstrate ethical behaviour.
Companies are spending a great deal of time and money to install codes of ethics, ethics training, compliance programs, and in-house watchdogs. The pressure at accounting, consulting, and law. 1 Answer to BTN - Please answer in Word Doc. Flo Choi owns a small business and manages its accounting. Her company just finished a year in which a large amount of borrowed funds was invested in a new building addition as well as in equipment and fixture additions.
Chapter 01 - Managerial Accounting Concepts and Principles Chapter 1 Managerial Accounting Concepts and Principles QUESTIONS 1. The managerial accountant plays an important role in preparing the information necessary for effective planning and control decisions.
One example is the budget, which is a quantitative expression of a . CHAPTER 2 ECONOMIC GROWTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT Theodore Panayotou Introduction empirical relationship between economic growth and the environment at different stages of economic development and explore how economic growth might be decoupled from environmental pressures.
Pertinent in this case is the challenge of globally accepted accounting standards for reporting its financial transactions, which might be indispensable for perfection of Islamic financial system.
The paramount importance of financial reporting had led to the efforts for preparing.