Haloalkanes are being used every day in the industry: These haloalkanes can be produced through nucleophilic substitution reactions also known as SN2 and SN1 reactions and it was through this that the haloalkanes 1-bromobutane and 2-chloro-2methylbutane were produced. An SN2 reaction was first carried out to synthesize 1-bromobutane from 1-butanol with the help of hydrobromic acid.
How to Write a Summary of an Article? April 4th, Introduction The overall goal of this experiment is to understand and be familiar of SN1 reactivity. We also learned how to prepare 2-Bromobutane by learning how to distill and extract this product from its organic layer.
Finally, another goal was to specifically understand the relative reactivity of alkyl halides under SN1 conditions by reacting the alkyl halide and silver nitrate in ethanol.
Then attach the flask to the apparatus, which is mounted on a Thermowell over a stirrer and a condenser attached to it, along with the thermometer in the flask. Then the mixture was heated at 90oC then kept at the range of 90oCoC for 30 minutes. When that is completed add 20 mL of water into the flask to perform a simple distillation to collect the distillate in a graduated cylinder, keep doing this until there is no more 2-Bromobutane collected.
Use a Pasteur pipette to draw off the organic layer to another container. Add the potassium carbonate to allow the liquid to dry by swirling it. Once this is completed the reactivity of alkyl halides under SN1 conditions was tested.
Adding two drops of our product and the other different compounds into different test tubes along with 1mL of ethanolic silver nitrate reagent. We are comparing these by seeing how they react and if there is no reaction after 5 minutes we will place the test tubes in a beaker of water that is heated at a temperature of 70oCoC and observe what happens.
Not Heated 2-Bromomethylpropane After 30 seconds, the mixture was yellow and a precipitate formed instantly. After 5 minutes, the color changed slightly to white and lightly cloudy. Not Heated 2-Iodobutane After 30 seconds, the mixture was yellow and precipitated instantly.
When I was drying the reagent with potassium carbonate, prior to that I had put the other pellets, which were calcium chloride on accident. This probably affected my percent yield also with the fact that the temperature was not well maintained it kept fluctuating under 90OC.
According to the reactivity of alkyl halides, the results of these tables can concluded the theories of the conditions of SN1 reactions. The first table states that the tertiary carbocation are more stable which allows this reaction to perform faster than second and primary structured carbocations.
Then the second table can concludes that iodine is the best leaving group because it is a much weaker base than the bromide ion and chloride ion causing it to react faster.With the reactions carried out, the desired haloalkane products of 1-bromobutane and 2-chloromethylbutane were obtained.
The S N 2 reaction allowed 1-butanol to be synthesized to 1-bromobutane. In this process we obtained a percent yield of 61%. Preparation and SN1 Reactivity of 2-Bromobutane Paul DeJong Department of Chemistry, Illinois State University, Normal, IL Submitted: April 4, Introduction The purpose of part 1 of the lab is to prepare 2-Bromobutane using SN1 reactions.
The purpose of part 2 of the lab is to determine the relative reactivity of alkyl halides under SN1 . Preparation and SN1 Reactivity of 2-Bromobutane Whitney Bellido Department of Chemistry, Illinois State University, Normal, IL Submitted: April 4th, Introduction The overall goal of this experiment is to understand and be familiar of SN1 reactivity.
This reaction must be a SN2 reaction as the product was almost entirely 1-bromobutane, if by an SN1 mechanism, the product should consist of mostly 2-bromobutane derived from the sec-butyl cation formed via a 1,2-hydride shift.
Such an interpretation of the product distribution must be made with caution. In this experiment, 1-chlorobutane, 1-bromobutane, 2-chlorobutane, 1-chloromethylpropane, and 2-chloromethylpropane are tested as substrates in SN1 and SN2 reaction scenarios to see which is more effective for each reaction.
whether the "Lucas reagent" promotes SN1 or SN2 reactions by examining how the reaction rate varies with the structure of the alcohol. The Lucas reagent is a solution of ZnCl 2 in concentrated.